# TECHNOLOGIES AND BENEFITS

Radio Vision develops advanced software and microelectronics for high-tech applications. As a company, we are completely independent to manage full life cycle of our products.

'Unfortunately, microelectronics is developed quite weakly in Russia , but it saved a number of advantages that have been in Soviet Union. This applies to such areas as microwave and infrared technologies, semiconductor emitting devices. As for the commercial market and in particular the microwave equipment in security systems, it has been mainly developed in 1950-1960 by the Special Design and Technological Bureau (a branch of VNIIFP) in Penza, and still used by a number of companies with minor changes and modifications. Obsolete technology is easy to identify, it's enough to visually look at their microwave modules and antennas. For example, all manufacturers face antenna quality problems - they affect conductor losses and radiation losses. It was confirmed in 2013 during the International Exhibition of Armament, Military Equipment and Ammunition (RAE 2013) by Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, he noted that military-industrial complex has really burning problems: shortage of specialists, partially obsolete factory and lab equipment , lack of technological progress. The markets of Europe and the USA seem more interesting, but the products are quite pricey if compared with what offers Radio Vision. There are no startups in the field of radar technology production, the entrance threshold is very high due to the high cost of equipment for the development of microwave devices. The processing methods have changed little over the past 50 years, investments in the development and organization of the production of components (as an antenna-feeder path) are measured in hundreds of millions euros'.

Investing in high-tech industry is an important driver for scientists to commercialize their research. The Skolkovo Foundation provides grant support to its residents for the development of software and advanced devices.

Having developed an innovative scanning technology, Radio Vision has driven radio detection to the new level. Thanks to this development the company has become a resident in Nuclear Technology Cluster of the Skolkovo Foundation.

At the end of 2015, Radio Vision registered one more project ‘NEURON hardware-software solution for integration into a single network of radar devices based on an advanced electronic scanning technology’ (Protocol #P5172). Indeed, the company has twice confirmed the innovativeness of its ideas and projects.

The technology, named 'Radio Holographic Camera (RHC) with 3D data visualization’, is a set of brand new, innovative methods and software algorithms, technical solutions and a new element base, as well as ways to manufacture devices and configure them. The technology uses narrowly directed electromagnetic wave to scan the area. Scanning is carried out by the transmitting and receiving systems that form a narrowly directed electromagnetic wave and automatically change its direction in space in the horizontal and vertical plane. During scanning, the radar measures the level of the reflected signal in the controlled area, along which the radar processor detects the coordinates of the target and its size. The scan data is either displayed in 3D mode, or transferred to any other integrated system over the IP protocol in XML format.

Radio Vision is a developer of ‘Real-Time Noise Reduction Module for communication and data transmission'. This development uses a breakthrough technology that enhances performance characteristics of various medical, communication and data transmission equipment without increasing the power. The product stage as of September 2015 is a working prototype and a mini-stand demonstrating the operation of the technology. This development was awarded with the diploma 'Scientific Breakthrough' at The International Exhibition of State Security "Interpolitech 2015".

Our goal is to promote and launch the developed products in the markets of Russia and the EEU, as well as in Europe, the Middle East and the BRICS countries.

## Object visualization

Interpretation of the displayed results depends on the skill and ingenuity of data analyst.

Realistic display of scanned targets. No risk of data misinterpretation.

This chart shows the advantages of our narrow-band microwave radar over devices that employ ultra-wideband (UWB) technology.

Object acquisition time Up to 30 seconds 0.05 seconds at real-time 50 fps
Positioning accuracy Low due to wide-beam antenna High due to narrow-beam antenna
Determine object size and shape No. UWB radar is capable of measuring only in a fixed direction Yes. A radar measures reflected signal in 50 points at each of 40 lines within the scan area. 2000 points in total.
Radiating power More than 10W 0.01W
Jam-resistance and electromagnetic compatibility Low due to wide frequency range (1000-7000 MHz) High, narrow frequency range (1 MHz)
Detection through damp barriers Radar pulses cannot penetrate wet materials Exceedingly wet walls/materials do not affect detection quality

## Noise reduction technology

Noise reduction (подавление шума) is the process of removing noise to extract useful information from a signal in order to improve its quality (increase the signal-to-noise ratio).

Noise reduction systems play an important role throughout the history of a mankind. One of the major trends is the use of rapidly developing digital signal processing systems. They are implemented on multi-purpose programmable processor elements.

There are a lot of algorithms (methods) of noise reduction. They differ in computational complexity, overall behaviour, given raw data and structures of adaptive systems. Key methods include:

• Matched filtering techniques
• Recursive algorithms
• Correlation methods

Their use in radio and communication systems increases the signal-to-noise ratio. However, these algorithms cannot distinguish a useful signal if the noise level exceeds the signal level. Then they are ineffective.

A significant contribution to the development of theory and practice of signal processing and building new computer systems was made by the following Russian scientists: V. Kotelnikov, U. Gulyaev, S. Lebedev, V. Burtsev, A. Khetagurov, L. Presnukhin, A. Galushkin.

## Our technology

Radio Vision has developed and patented a brand new short-range radar employing active phased antenna arrays and a new method of noise ‘killing’ for real-time DSP. These algorithms help to extract a useful signal from background noise, even if the noise exceeds hundredfold the level of a useful signal.

The radar module solves the following system of equations for X and Y:

$$U_{s}(t) + U_{n}(t) \rightarrow \left\{\begin{matrix} \boxed{ \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty }(U_{n}(t))dt = 0 \; (1)\\\\ \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty }(U_{s}(t) + U_{n}(t))dt = U_{s}(t) \; (2) }\\ \text{Module} \end{matrix}\right. \rightarrow U_{s}(t)$$

where $U_{n}(t)$ is a noise , $U_{s}(t)$ is a signal.

The module receives both a useful signal and a noise $U_{s}(t) + U_{n}(t)$.

On the basis of equation $(1)$ , the noise in the system is zero. Regardless of the amplitude value.

On the basis of equation $(2)$, only a useful signal will be extracted from the received signal.

The algorithms are based on on matched filtering principle. In our reference design we applied the technique of Kohonen self-organizing maps with different styles of learning.

A formula for calculating the radio range (the radar range equation) is commonly used for all existing radio networks. According to this formula, we can find a value from Radio Vision's noise reduction method. By reducing similar parameters in this formula, we obtain signal-to-noise ratio, where K is a value from using our noise reduction module, L is a maximum radio range of new radio channels with a coefficient M=N (signal is hundredfold less than noise).

$$V = \frac{D_{new}}{D} = \frac{\sqrt[4]{\frac{1}{K_{new}}}}{\sqrt[4]{\frac{1}{K}}} = \frac{\sqrt[4]{100}}{\sqrt[4]{1}} = \frac{3,16}{0,56} = 5,64\; ,$$

where: $V$ – benefit after applying our noise reduction module;

$D_{new}$ – max radio communication range of the new channels with signal/noise ratio $K_{new} = 1/100$ (signal is hundredfold less than noise)

Consequently the radio range can be increased 5.64 times without enhancing transmitter's power by using Radio Vision's method of noise reduction. Use of artificial neural networks in signal processing allows to achieve accuracy predetermined during network learning phase. Reference design algorithms can be easily adapted to arbitrary signal parameters. Capabilities of the method are limited by reference design's multi-core processor productivity that implements neural network algorithm, but they can be improved ten- or even hundredfold.

## Technology applications and target markets

All radio receivers are not immune to noise due to their working principle. Noise significantly limits the following parameters: range of communication, clarity, channels quality, etc. By applying our algorithms it will be possible to enhance these parameters and uncover new opportunities for various electronic devices and appliances including radio stations. For instance:

• For mobile communication systems, including cellular. This will give technical advantages and the ability to support high quality signals and wider coverage using fewer base stations.
• A tenfold range increase for existing radio communication systems, including air and space communications (without enhancing transmitter's power).
• New way of data transmission that cannot be suppressed by any existing jammers.
• A new level of medical equipment (such as computed tomography scanners) measurements. This will allow to create brand new devices and systems.
• A new stage in the development of control algorithms for robotics and car navigation.
• A new type of radars with a lower transmit power (a tenfold decrease).

## Other technologies

Radio Vision applies only in-house developed and manufactured antennas for radars and perimeter detectors. The company has patent applications for an invention # 2016143574 «Microstrip antenna» and PCT/ RU2016/ 000892. Our unique technologies allowed to get the highest possible Q factor to significantly improve antenna performance. The quality factor of an antenna can be defined as a representation of the antenna losses, namely:

• Conductive loss
• Surface waves